Educational objectives
The distinctive character of graduate education at the doctoral level is education through research. Graduate students learn analytical abilities, experimental methods and frame of mind that enable them to advance knowledge and solve frontier problems in their discipline, so that they can undertake careers in research (at universities, public laboratories or companies), or bring to whichever profession they choose the spirit of discovery and risk-taking nurtured by research. In addition to the classes offered within each doctoral program, the Graduate School offers cross-listed seminars and lectures, open to all students enrolled in its doctoral programs.
Cross-listed offerings
Classes, Colloquia, Distinguished lectures.
PhD programmes
The doctorate (PhD) is the III level of studies, after the "laurea" (Bachelor) and the "laurea specialistica/magistrale" (Master). Its objective is education through research. Admission is limited and based on merit.
PhD in Computer Science (last activated in 2013)

The objective of the PhD programme is to prepare specialists with a deep and broad knowledge of computer science and with a strong ability of understanding advanced research methodologies. The PhD graduate should be able to work on pure as well as applied and industrial research. For this purpose the programme includes several advanced training courses and requires the preparation of a final dissertation according to the highest international standards

PhD in Multimodal Imaging in Biomedicine (last intake in 2013)
The aim of this phD program is to train young students in scientific research activities in the field of multimodal imaging, intended in the widest sense of the word, with the final aim of offering university and other research centres, young researchers who are skilled in a wide field of modern biomedical research techniques. The graduates wil be included in specific research projects of clinical-experimental and basic nature, using techniques such as experimental and clinical magnetic resonance imaging, infrared spectroscopes, optic, electronic and confocal microscopes, mono- and two-dimensional proteic electrophoresis, polymerase chain reaction, RFLP, Mutation/polymorphism screening (DHPLC and DNA sequencing), DNA microarray, linkage analysis, ELISA dosage.
Title "Information for Students".
PhD in Nanotechnology and Nanostructured Materials for Biomedical Applications (last intake in 2013)
The PhD in Nanotechnology and Nanostructured Materials for Biomedical Applications is connected to the Graduate School in Sciences, Engineering and Medicine and is aimed to form experts in the planning, development, improvement and application of Nanotechnology and nanostructured materials to biomedical issues.
To guarantee the achievement of these targets, the PhD students will be involved in several experimental research activities, such as preparation of nanostructured materials and its optimization, the measurements of their chemical and physical properties and their application to biomedical topics. A notable skill in the collection of experimental data and their elaboration will be gained during the PhD program. Many measurement techniques will be used, as scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM), 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), optical spectroscopy (absorption and emission), vibrational microspectroscopy (Raman and infrared), monodimensional and bidimensional proteomic, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), mutation/polymorphism screening, denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography, DNA sequencing and microarray. Through a proper training using such techniques, the PhD student will be able to directly perform experiments, collect and elaborate the experimental data and write out scientific reports and publications to be submitted to international journals.
At the end of the program, the Philosophy Doctors will gain all the needed competences and skills in different scientific fields such as chemistry, physics, biology and medicine. The Doctors will have the ability to plan and carry out autonomously a research activity in the field of Nanotechnology and nanomaterials for biomedical applications.

Research fields:
- synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of nanostructured materials and multimodal contrast agents
- preparation of nanocrystalline thin films
- investigation on the structural and vibrational properties of functionalized nanostructured materials
- superficial nanoengineering
- cellular nanoengineering
- functional analysis of biological interfaces
- tracers production
- development of biosensors for cellular activation
- cell targeting
PhD in Neuroscience (last intake in 2013)
The neuroscience encompass both basic science and applied, clinical domains of knowledge and are aimed at elucidating the mechanisms underlying the development and functioning of the central and peripheral nervous system, as well as the processes leading to diseases of the nervous system and restoration of normal function following these diseases. The general goal of this doctoral program is to allow advanced training of well qualified young students to become expert researchers in basic and/or clinical neurosciences, the ultimate mission of the program being the understanding of the brain and the development of successuful therapeutic approaches to cure individuals with diseases of the nervous system. Diseases of the nervous system are not only extremely disadvantageous to affected individuals, but thy also represent one of the highest economical costs in modern societies. The understanding of the nervous system, the most complex structure in nature, requires multiple approaches and methodologies, which together form the core structure of the program.
PhD in Psychology and Psychiatry (last activated in 2013)
Psychological Curriculum: Cognitive and neural bases of fundamental cognitive functions such as perception, attention, memory and language. These functions will be studied either on normal participants or on patients with selective brain lesions by using experimental psychology or neuropsychological techniques. Electrophysiological correlates of the above cognitive functions as studied with the technique of event-related potentials. Use of eye-movement recording as a means to study visual perception and attention. Study of the neuro-metabolic correlates of cognitive functions by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging. Use of transcranial magnetic stimulation to interfere reversibly and safely with selective aspects of cognitive functions.

Psychiatric Curriculum: Evaluation of psycho-social interventions in psychiatry with special reference to quantitative analysis of inputs, processes and outcomes including evaluation of costs and benefits. Evaluation of outcome predictors in major psychoses and other psychic disturbances also in reference to genetic factors and brain functional and anatomical pathology. Evaluation of the correctness of pharmacological interventions in psychiatry by means of computer assisted monitoring of prescriptions. Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of psychiatric drugs through systematic revision of published studies as well direct controlled clinical investigation. Study of the neuro-metabolic correlates and neural bases of the major psychoses by means of functional (and structural) magnetic resonance imaging. Evaluation of the quality of doctor-patient relationship through standardized techniques of analysis of medical interviews either in a general medicine or in a psychiatric setting. Evaluation of the outcome of psychotherapic interventions.
PhD Program in Applied Biotechnologies
The PhD in Applied Biotechnology refers to the Graduate School of Science, Engineering and Medicine, and is divided in two curricula:
AGRO-INDUSTRIAL BIOTECHNOLOGY curriculum aims to basic, methodological and experimental training of the researcher and/or operator in the complex and innovative field of applied biotechnology. The specific research project can be developed in the following areas: food quality and safety control, production chain tracking, quality of vegetable productions, microbiological applications in the agro-food field, development of biotechnological processes to improve agricultural plants, development of innovative biotechnological products by using plants and microrganisms for human health and environmental protection; studies into the structure and functions of biologically interesting macro-molecules, also in view of the production of molecules with improved characteristics of industrial interest.
VINE GROWING AND WINE MAKING BIOTECHNOLOGY curriculum, originated. from the positive relationship between the academic world and the Verona vine and wine producing areas, aims to the training of research doctors with qualified skills and basic scientific knowledge that they can transmit, in the short-medium term, to vine cultivation and local, national and international wine making industry. The research training involves the participation of the teachers in national and international research projects, that currently deal with the characterisation and functional analysis of the genoma of the vine and the microbic components that are present and active in the wine production chain, in order to produce scientific knowledge, molecular and technological instruments, and define theoretic models which could be exploited to the benefit of Italian and international vine growing and wine making. Other areas in which the research project can be developed are: identification of genetic response systems to the pathogenes; study of the genetic and physiological parameters that regulate grape ripening during maturing and over-maturing phases; development of specific microorganisms in must and wines.

Didactic offer